Taking mining engineering as an example, where are the differences between Chinese and Australian research talents?
Author: Zhang Lei, Shang Tao
Source: Mining Australia
"Differential Research on the Cultivation of Research Talents in China and Australiaâ€”â€”Taking Mining Engineering as an Example"
With the increasingly close exchanges and cooperation in the international mining industry, the internationalization training of mining engineering professionals in China has become a hot and difficult point, especially the internationalized training research of mining engineering research talents is more eye-catching. Mining engineering is a major in minerals and minerals. Postgraduate education is the most important way to cultivate research-oriented talents. The postgraduate training of mining engineering mainly focuses on the theory and method of studying mining, and develops new mining technologies. It has strong practical characteristics. To make mining engineering theory a safe, economical, and efficient theory that can guide practice, and cultivate high-quality engineering and compound application talents for mining engineering and related fields.
At present, China's mining engineering graduate training model and method (for example, China University of Mining and Technology), and Australia, the United States and other countries, mining engineering graduate training model is still very different, in order to promote the improvement of China's mining engineering graduate training model, the need Learn from each other's strengths and absorb foreign good training experience. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct research on the difference between postgraduate training in mining engineering at home and abroad. Taking the postgraduate training mode of Australian mining engineering as the representative of foreign postgraduate training mode, it conducts comparative analysis and research with the domestic postgraduate training mode to promote the optimization and development of the postgraduate training mode of mining engineering in China.
[1. Differences in postgraduate training in mining engineering between China and Australia]
[(1) Graduate degree and academic system]
China's graduate degree and academic system are shown in Figure 1. The individual examination masters adopt the training method of â€œnot leaving the school without leaving the postâ€, and cultivate the basic theoretical and professional knowledge of the mining engineering field for the employer, and have the talents who independently undertake engineering technology. The full-time academic master's degree mainly trains teaching and scientific research talents, and pays attention to the cultivation of basic theoretical knowledge and scientific experimental ability. The full-time professional master's degree mainly trains on-site application of compound talents, focusing on the cultivation of engineering practice ability. Ph.D. student, who is a senior professional who has a solid and broad basic theory and deeper professional knowledge in this field. He has the ability to independently engage in scientific research and related work, and can make creative achievements in scientific research and professional technology. .
Australian graduate degrees and academic systems are shown in Figure 2. Among them, the taught master's degree generally requires the academic background of the major. If the non-professional students need to have a certain working background or a half-year basic course, the credit system is adopted, the prescribed time course is completed and the exam is passed, and no dissertation can be written. Get a degree. The research master's degree aims to cultivate students' scientific research and innovation ability in terms of topic selection, planning, implementation and completion, complete the prescribed scientific research tasks, write a dissertation and obtain a degree through expert review. The Master of Honours is different from the Master of Curriculum and the Master of Research. Generally, the Master of Curriculum is to continue to deepen and improve after completing the course for one year. Professional PhDs for professionals and college teachers are required to complete the required course study. Doctor of Philosophy trains high-level innovative talents, requires the completion of research on a certain depth of innovative topics, and writes dissertations.
[(2) Graduate selection system]
The selection of Chinese postgraduate students mainly passes the national postgraduate entrance examination (collectively recruited) and recommended outstanding undergraduate graduates to study for graduate students. The unified examination is divided into the initial test and the retest. The students who are higher than the national scores and the professional scores of the colleges and universities in the initial test will enter the retest, and will be accepted by the comprehensive evaluation of the initial test and the retest. For undergraduate graduates with excellent grades, they can apply for colleges and participate in interviews after they have obtained the qualifications for recommendation exemption, and comprehensively accept admission according to the performance of undergraduate stage and interview results. The doctoral degree is mainly for the postgraduate students who are pursuing doctoral degrees in several ways, such as ordinary recruitment, application-audit system, Shuobo (this master) and direct attack (direct). Ordinary recruitment is to participate in the school-level doctoral unified admission examination, the rest of the way to apply for students, the college organizes interviews comprehensive assessment admission, the overall is "strict entry and strict".
The Australian postgraduate selection system is inherited from the UK and adopts a combination of individual application and mentor admission. In the way of lenient and strict, there is no entrance examination, and those who complete undergraduate study can apply for a master's degree program; those with a master's degree or excellent honours degree can apply directly to pursue a Ph.D. Even if you do not have the above degree, you can apply for a relevant research degree if you have many years of research experience. At the same time, the tutor has a great decision on whether or not the student is admitted .
[(3) Graduate tutor system]
The single tutor system has a long history in the Chinese postgraduate training system, and the expansion of the graduate enrollment scale makes the teacher-student ratio imbalance. The tutor may also guide more than a dozen postgraduates, and they can not care for all graduate students.
Australia pays more attention to the guiding role of tutors in postgraduate training. Joint guidance: guided by a principal supervisor and several co-supervisors. The main tutor is responsible for guiding the graduate students, and arranging the students' study and research tasks according to the training plan; the assistant tutor assists the main tutors in assisting in the daily affairs of the students and guiding the basic knowledge. The instructor usually interviews the graduate students once a week to check and guide the progress of the research to help solve problems in the research.
[(4) Postgraduate course setting]
China has clearly defined the types of courses and the credits required for graduate students. The postgraduate curriculum is divided into four parts, namely, public compulsory courses, professional compulsory courses, professional elective courses, and compensatory and optional courses. Graduate students develop a development plan based on their research direction and pass the selected course exam. Among them, Zhibosheng and Shuobosheng need to repair 30 credits, and the doctors are required to take 13 credits. The masters need to complete 22 credits, the masters need to repair 26 credits, and the individual exam masters need to repair 32 credits. If you earn credits, you can make a thesis defense.
In Australia, the taught master's degree requires credits, and you don't need to write academic papers to apply for a degree. Professional doctors need to take credits and write a thesis. The paper can be awarded by a blind review. The course pass directly affects the degree of the degree; Research masters and Ph.D. students do not have credit requirements, and the choice of courses in combination with the research direction has nothing to do with graduation.
[(5) Review of graduate thesis]
In China, teachers and students are discussed to determine topics, conduct research and write graduation thesis. Master's degree thesis take the form of targeted surveillance and random checks of combining targeted surveillance target for the school to get more first-class and academic scholarships school master, the proportion is 50%. Randomly selected students are graduate students who have obtained second and lower academic scholarships, with a ratio of 3% to 5%. The papers drawn were reviewed by two experts with master's degree experience, at least one of whom was an off-campus expert. All the doctoral thesises were blindly reviewed by the school, and were reviewed by five off-campus experts with doctoral students' guidance experience.
After completing the thesis, the Australian graduate students are handed over to the instructor for review. The instructor strictly controls the scientific, innovative and practical nature of the thesis. Master's thesis generally requires two reviewers, at least one of whom is an off-campus expert. The doctoral thesis needs to be reviewed by at least 2 people, and the reviewer can be an international expert.
[(6) Grant of Graduate Degree]
Chinese master's students pass the course examination, training session assessment and dissertation defense, and the qualifications are qualified, and the master's degree can be awarded. The doctoral students pass the examination of the course examination and training, and publish academic papers. Finally, the doctoral degree is awarded after the dissertation defense.
Australia's master's degree requires 2 reviewers, and a Ph.D. requires 3 reviewers. If the experts return a consensus and meet the graduation thesis requirements, they can directly grant a master's or doctoral degree without a thesis defense; if the experts think that the thesis is discussed If it is incomplete, it is necessary to perfect the paper according to the expert opinion and submit it again. If the opinions are still inconsistent, the students need to reply to the thesis, and the defense committee determines whether the paper level of the degree is reached. There is no requirement for publishing academic papers during the course of a degree, but the publication of the paper can reflect the level of scientific research of the students.
[(7) Postgraduate Quality Evaluation]
China's higher education quality guarantee system is relatively simple, mainly because the school is responsible for the quality evaluation of graduate students, and evaluates and evaluates from five aspects: curriculum learning, compulsory links, scientific research quality, innovation ability, and dissertation. In the compulsory part, it mainly conducts literature review and paper opening, mid-term inspection, academic norms and scientific research ethics; in the aspect of scientific research quality, it mainly assesses academic activities and special seminars; in terms of innovation ability, it mainly examines academic paper publication, scientific research practice, and independence. Participation in research, patent invention, etc.; in the dissertation, it is mainly to summarize the research results and the ability to write a thesis.
Australia is one of the first countries in the world to establish a quality assurance system for higher education. Its quality assessment includes external assessment and internal assessment. External assessments are assessed by experts from the Australian University Quality Council, and internal assessments are self-assessed by universities. The Quality Committee actively cooperates with the federal government. The federal government formulates regulations and systems for postgraduate education based on the needs of talents in economic, cultural, and technological development, and provides macro-level control and guidance on the quality of postgraduate education. The quality committee develops detailed quality assessment plans. And the indicator system, while requiring universities to receive an assessment every five years. All colleges and universities formulate the implementation plan of the school's education quality assessment according to the graduate education quality assessment program and indicator system formulated by the Quality Committee.
[two, Australian graduate training advantage]
[(1) Training methods for diversified development]
According to the nature of the discipline and the training objectives, the application model, the academic research model and the localized â€œMelbourne modelâ€ complement each other. In the process of cultivating, weaken the examination of courses, examinations and academic papers, pay attention to cultivating students' problems in finding problems, solving problems, scientific research, innovation and creation, and practical operation ability. According to personal characteristics and research direction, appropriate extension or shortening of the academic system and maximum play. Students' subjective initiative and innovative creativity promote students' academic development and scientific research progress.
[(2) Strict tutor selection system]
High-quality, innovative and applied international composite graduate students benefit from the instructor's exquisite business knowledge, rigorous academic attitude and rich practical experience. Universities recruit talents globally and rigorously review applicants. First, internationally renowned scholars in the subject area are invited to review the applicant's materials, and then the two-level academic committee of the department and department will propose a list of hiring suggestions based on the review opinions. The latter will then employ the two opinions. Greatly increase the number of foreign teachers and visiting professors, and hire senior technical personnel.
[(3) Teaching system of wide-ranging and strict exit]
The selection system for individual application and tutor admission is not used for a unified examination. The tutor decides whether to accept the applicant according to the research ability, practical operation ability and knowledge accumulation level of the applicant. Research graduates need to complete a dissertation with innovation.
[(4) Flexible curriculum system setting]
Guided by market needs and enterprise development, flexible setting of degree points, research degree and curriculum type are strictly distinguished. Research-oriented degrees mainly cultivate students' research ability. Students do not have courses during their studies, mainly conducting research; curriculum-based degrees are mainly curriculum learning and training of practical ability.
[(5) Education Evaluation System]
It has formed a relatively complete quality assurance system for graduate students, including: independent quality management mechanism of colleges and universities, quality incentive mechanism of state and federal governments, quality evaluation or supervision committee from society. The Quality Committee and the government rigorously evaluate the curriculum, discipline construction, practical teaching, scientific research platform, and research results of various universities, and issue evaluation reports, which are ordered to be rectified within a time limit. And the implementation of the elimination system within the university. The master's degree is held every 2 to 3 weeks, mainly to examine the mastery of the course. The instructor will score according to the performance of the seminar. The accumulated score may be eliminated when the score is not up to the prescribed level. Research Masters and PhDs are required to attend academic conferences at regular intervals to report on research progress and research results. The tutor group will conduct a review and if the result of the review is not suitable for continuing research, it will be directly eliminated.
[III. Advantages of Chinese postgraduate training]
[(1) Attach importance to the cultivation of scientific thoughts]
Incorporating the ideological and theoretical curriculum into the public compulsory scope, and offering courses such as "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" and "Research on the Theory and Practice of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics", so that graduate students can understand and master the basic principles of Marxism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory in a deeper degree. In the study and life, we will conscientiously implement and implement the scientific development concept and establish a correct outlook on life, values, and worldview. From the ideological point of view, it lays the foundation for further study and research of graduate students, so that graduate students can think more deeply about scientific issues from the philosophical level.
[(2) Rich library resources]
After nearly a hundred years of development, the library has formed a document information resource guarantee system featuring mining, focusing on science and technology, and coordinating development of culture, management, economics and law. It has built special databases such as â€œMining Engineering Digital Libraryâ€, â€œMining Engineering Databaseâ€ and â€œLow Carbon New Energy Databaseâ€ and â€œAcademic Video on Demand Platformâ€. The fast-track has been opened to facilitate students to conduct Opac inquiries, technology search, dissertation submission, reference consultation, alumni writing, and provide a wealth of resources.
[(3) Perfect incentive funding system]
In order to improve the quality of postgraduate education, promote the cultivation of innovative talents, encourage graduate students to study academically, reward graduate students for better completion of their studies, and use financial appropriations, tuition income, and tutor input to establish a dynamic postgraduate scholarship to improve the quality of training. The evaluation system includes postgraduate national scholarships and academic scholarships, and has a â€œthree-assistedâ€ (ie, assistant research, teaching assistant, and support) position. At the same time, in order to guide, motivate and support graduate students' research and scientific research, carry out high-level scientific and technological innovation activities, accelerate the promotion of scientific research and innovation capabilities, publish high-level papers, and set up outstanding innovation graduate scholarships, creating a good technological innovation conditions and learning atmosphere.
[(4) Quality and perfect teaching resources]
It has a team of 3 academicians and more than 100 middle and senior professional titles, and most of the professional teachers receive Ph.D. We have better teaching and laboratory facilities, including the State Key Laboratory of coal resource exploration, mining engineering national experimental teaching demonstration center, virtual simulation National Mining Engineering Experimental Teaching Center, Key Laboratory of security and deep mining of coal resources in the Ministry of Education A number of national, provincial and ministerial teaching and research experimental platforms. The college has won several national excellent teaching achievement awards, excellent teaching materials awards, national quality courses, provincial excellent teaching achievement awards, and excellent textbook awards. The scientific research achievements have won the national three major science and technology awards and the provincial and ministerial level science and technology awards. The remainder.
[four, the conclusion]
With the rapid development of the national economy and the rapid development of mining technology, the innovation competition in the world's mining industry has become increasingly fierce, and higher requirements have been placed on the quality of mining engineering research talents. Therefore, this paper compares and analyzes the graduate training system of mining engineering in China and Australia, and draws the differences in degree system, selection system, tutor system, curriculum setting, paper review, degree award and quality evaluation, and analyzes China and Australia. The advantages of postgraduate training in the country have laid a theoretical foundation for the optimization of the exploration of postgraduate training system in China. China should make full use of high-quality teaching resources at home and abroad, create good conditions and atmosphere for scientific and technological innovation, enhance students' scientific research level and comprehensive quality, continuously inject fresh blood into the international mining field, and promote the vigorous development of China's mining industry.
â€”â€”Zhang Lei, Shang Tao, Li Guichen, Zhang Yuan
â€”â€”(College of Mining Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu)
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